Figure 1: Data Collection and Analysis
ANALYSIS OF HETEROGENEOUS ENVIRONMENT IMPLEMENTATION PERFORMANCE
Impact and performance analysis of heterogeneous environment implementation will be divided and discussed in three areas: (i) analyze availability of bandwidth for network infrastructure; (ii) analyze implementation of various services and communication technologies over heterogeneous environment; and (iii) analyze implementation of QoS for heterogeneous environment.
Availability of bandwidth for network infrastructure
Frequency test was used to analyze and measure availability of bandwidth speed for network infrastructure in higher educational institutes. Figure 2 shows that implementation of 2 Mbps (low speed bandwidth) has achieved higher percentage than 20 Mbps and above (high speed bandwidth) in Higher Educational Institutes. While, it also shows that LAN speed bandwidth is more focusing to 100 Mbps implementation compared to 1 Gbps (see Figure 3 and Table 2). Frequency test has show decreasing of graph in exponential pattern for Internet bandwidth implementation from low speed bandwidth to high speed bandwidth.
Figure 2: Internet Bandwidth speed availability in Higher Educational Institutes
Table 2: Bandwidth for Local Area Network (LAN)
Figure 3: LAN Bandwidth Speed in Higher Educational Institutes
T-test was used to test hypothesis for implementation of bandwidth capacity. By using t-test, the result shows that implementation of high speed bandwidth for Internet (WAN) achieved significant level as compares to LAN. From the result, it shows that there is significant difference regarding the implementation of high speed bandwidth for Internet (WAN) in Malaysian higher educational institutes. However, implementation of high speed bandwidth for LAN among public and private higher educational institutes did not show any significant difference and it has a similarity and focusing of high speed bandwidth implementation 100 Mbps (see Table 3).
Table 3: T-test for Types of Bandwidth in Higher Educational Institutes
Implementation of Various Services and Technologies
Frequency test was also used to analyze the implementation of various services and technologies in higher educational institutes. Figure 4, shows the result of various services implementation such as Web and Email services achieve higher percentage (100%) as compared to other services such as Video Conference, Voice Mail, WebCT, VoD, IP Telephony, VoIP, Unify Messaging, WAP and IVR (20% and below). Therefore, retrieving information and interaction between students and lecturers in Malaysian higher educational institutes used mainly Web and Email services. A heterogeneous network campus environment provides user (student and lecturer) mobility, as students and lecturers are no longer tied to fix locations to access the information and interaction. It also offers high network accessibility as network resources remain accessible after office hours. Students and lecturers of WAP, IVR, voice mail, VoIP and IP Telephony services will benefits from easy to relevant campus information through their portable devices (mobile phone and PDA).
Figure 4: Implementation of Various Services in Higher Educational Institutes
Table 4 and Figure 5 show the impact of various services operational on convergence of communication technologies utilization for retrieving and sending information between students and lecturers. The result also shows decreasing use of communication technologies such as PC, PDA, Mobile Phone and Fixed Phone in accessing information and interaction among students and lecturers which is less than 10%.
Table 4: Convergence of Communication Technologies Percentage
Figure 5: Convergence Variety of Communication Technologies
Figure 6 shows the percentage of each communication technology in accessing information in Malaysian higher educational institutes. The most popular communication device used by students and lecturers for accessing information is PC technology (100%). While, Mobile and Fixed Phones (20% and below) are the lowest communication technologies used by students and lecturers for accessing information in Malaysian higher educational institutes.
Figure 6: Percentage of Information Access Using Communication Technology
Figure 7: Communication flow of devices in accessing each other
Figure 7 shows communication flow of devices (portable and non-portable devices) that communicate with each other (students and lecturers) for accessing information in Malaysian higher educational institutes. It indicates that Malaysian higher educational institutes did not achieve optimal performance in heterogeneous environment. This heterogeneous environment is designed to facilitate students and lecturers interaction, provide broadcast information and ease collaborative work through the use of portable devices such as mobile phone and PDA. Low speed bandwidth implementation for Internet connectivity (refer to Figure 2) can contribute higher bandwidth utilization. Figure 8 and Table 5 show that the majority of the higher educational institutes have obtained higher bandwidth utilization (80% to 90%). A few of Higher Educational Institutes (10%) has not fully utilized the bandwidth utilization (20%-30%).
Figure 8: Network Traffic Utilization in Higher Educational Institutes
Table 5: Frequency of Network Traffic Utilization in Higher Educational Institutes
Due to high bandwidth utilization, it can degrade the network performance on operational services such as Web and Email traffic congestion (see Table 6). Web and Email services contribute to 66.4% of the network traffic congestion (see Figure 9). Web service contributes to 50% of the network failure (see Figure 10). Today, higher bandwidth utilization in higher educational institutes can impact the heterogeneous network environment performance.
Table 6: Frequency and Fraction Types of Services Congestion
Figure 9: Types of Services Congestion Percentage
Figure 10: Types of Services Failure Percentage
From the data analysis, it shows accessing information and interaction among students and lecturers in higher educational institutes are under utilized based on the implementation of various services and convergence of communication technologies. Today, base on the survey result, implementation of heterogeneous environment in higher educational institutes will be occurred of performance issues because the higher of network utilization traffic and lowest usage of bandwidth link to Internet. Therefore, the efficency of the heterogeneous environment in higher educational institutes can quickly deteriorate when the number of students and lecturers increases over the Internet. In addition conversation between two parties (students ßà lecturers) will be unreliable, inconsistent and unsatisfactory.
The challenges in deploying heterogeneous environment in higher educational institutes are mainly from issues related to the network congestion and this will affect the bandwidth link quality. Implementation of heterogeneous environment will create a new era to communicate between students and lecturers over various services and technologies. If Malaysian higher educational institutes want to develop heterogeneous environment, it needs to ensure that capacity, utilization and service of network are well managed. This problem can be solved if System Network Administrator is able to evaluate and measure the network performance in early stage (preparation, planning and designing) before implementing of various services over heterogeneous environment. Therefore, it needs a mechanism or model to evaluate and measure network performance in early stage.
Impact of low service operations in higher educational institutes also affects the implementation of QoS (see Figure 11). The result also shows decreasing exponent pattern for QoS implementation. To ensure that current services can operate more efficiency, system network administrator preferred to use ‘priority queuing’ (see Figure 12).
Figure 11: Implementation of QoS on Service Operations
Figure 12: Types of QoS Selection in Higher Educational Institutes
Based on the respondents’ comments (refer to Table 7), the result shows that few expert workers is the main factor why Qos is not implemented in higher educational institutes to improve the operational services performance.
Table 7: Reasons for Deficiency in QoS Implementation
CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
From the survey results, it shows that Malaysian higher educational institutes have not achieved maximum level of various services implementation via convergence of communication technologies for retrieving and sending information between students and lecturers. Furthermore, Internet bandwidth connectivity implementation is more focusing on low speed bandwidth (2 Mbps) compared to high speed bandwidth implementation. Low speed bandwidth can affect the bandwidth utilization in network infrastructure. In addition, the survey also indicates a minimum QoS implementation in higher educational institutes. Web and Email services have contributed to higher network congestion due to high utility. To ensure that other services e.g. video conference, video on demand, VoIP and IP telephony can operate without any interruption, the higher educational institutes should have high-speed bandwidth and good QoS implementation. The most significant finding in this study is to show that accessing information over heterogeneous environment in Malaysian higher educational institutes is still under utilized. Based on the findings of this study, I have conceived a new comprehensive communication flow framework of devices and taxonomy, which allows us to categorize heterogeneous environment (see Figure 13). This framework suggests a low mobility and ubiquitous computing environment between students and lecturers in Malaysia higher educational institutes. In addition, convergence of communication technologies aims to enhance various services implementation for accessing information in higher educational institutes. Figure 14 shows how the relationship between network performance, multi-traffic, bandwidth capacity, utilization and QoS can affect network connectivity such as LAN or Internet (WAN) over heterogeneous environment.
Figure 13: Flow of Heterogeneous Environment Design
Figure 14: Bandwidth, Performance and Traffic Relationship
If Malaysian higher educational institutes are planning to develop heterogeneous network environment, they need to ensure that bandwidth capacity, bandwidth utilization and QoS of network are well managed for multi-service traffic. Heterogeneous environment can also generate mobility approaches for accessing information (see Figure 13). To ensure the successful implementation of heterogeneous network environment, the system administrators need to understand current traffic characteristics of the various services. Measuring bandwidth utilization and bandwidth capacity performance before deployment of new heterogeneous network environment can aid correct redesign and configuration of traffic prioritization in network infrastructure (see Figure 14). Future work is to develop a conceptual framework for heterogeneous model as a platform to combine various services implementation and convergence of communication technologies in higher educational institutes. This model can assist system network administrator to analyze computer network performance more effectively and efficiently in designing network topology over various services implementation using heterogeneous model. This futuristic model can help system network administrator to evaluate capability of network performance on preparation, planning and designing stage. It can also improve and obtain high on efficiency network and technical aspects in contributing the robust network architecture.
Anand Padmanabhan. 2003. “The SNet model: access, security and e-services for students”, Proceeding of the 13 st annual ACM SIGUCCS conference on User services., San Antonio, TX, USA: pp. 182-188.
Assistant Sectary Cecilia V. Reyes. 2003. “Philippine Case: Capacity Building in I.T Sector”, International Symposium on Bridging the Digital Divide in East Asia, Seoul, Korea.
Binh Thai, Rachel Wan, Aruna Seneviratne & Thierry Rakotoarivelo.2003. “Integrated Personal Mobility Architecture: A Complete Personal Mobility Solution”. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Bigioi, P. & Corcoran, P.M. 2002. “Platform and network independent multimedia services. Consumer Electronics”. ICCE. Digest of Technical Papers. International Conference, pp. 86 – 87.
David R.Gerhan & Stephen M. Mutula. 2005. “Bandwidth bottlenecks at the University of Botswana”, Published by Emerald Group, Vol. 23 (1), pp. 102-117.
J.C. Crimi. 2002. “Next Generation Network (NGN) Services”, Telcordia Technologies.
Jianqiang Li & Zhaohao Sun. 2004. “Internet/Web technology in higher education in China”,
Advanced Learning Technologies, Proceedings. IEEE International Conference, pp. 993 – 997.
Kyung-Hyu .L, Kyu-Ok .L, Kwon-Chul .P, Jong-Ok .L & Yoon-Hak .B. 2003. “Architecture to be deployed on strategies of next-generation networks”, Communications ICC '03. The IEEE, Vol. 2, pp. 819 – 822.
Melazzi, N.B. 2005. “The Simplicity Project: Improving Ease of Use and Personalization of ICT Services”.Wireless On-demand Network Systems and Services, WONS 2005. Second Annual Conference, pp. 174 – 179.
Podhradsky, P. 2004. “Migration scenarios and convergence processes towards NGN (present state and future trends)”, Electronics in Marine Proceedings Elmar. 46th International Symposium, pp. 39-46.
Paul Reynolds.2003. “A vision of the Internet in 2010. Campus-Wide Information Systems”, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Vol. 20(4), pp. 125-128,
Qigang Zhao, Xuming Fang, Qunzhan Li & Zhengyou He. 2005. “WNN-based NGN traffic prediction”,ISADS 2005. Proceedings Autonomous Decentralized Systems, pp. 230-234.
Ron Oliver. 2002. “The role of ICT in higher education for the 21st century: ICT as a change agent for education Edith Cowan University, Perth, Western Australia”, HE21 conf. Proceeding.
Sibongiseni Tunzelana.2002. “An Investigation into the Convergence of Information Technology Telecommunication and Media in South Africa”, Proceeding of SAICSIT 2002, pp. 259.
Tack-Don Han; Cheolho Cheong et. Al. 2004. “Implementation of new services to support ubiquitous computing for campus life. Software Technologies for Future Embedded and Ubiquitous Systems”, Proceedings. Second IEEE Workshop, pp. 8 – 13.
Xianxin Jiang, Fangchun Yang & Hua Zou. 2003. “A novel architecture to customer service management for the NGN”, ICCT 2003, International Conference, Vol.1, pp. 123-126.
Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the authors, with first publication rights granted to the journal. By virtue of their appearance in this open access journal, articles are free to use, with proper attribution, in educational and other non-commercial settings.
Original article at: http://ijedict.dec.uwi.edu//viewarticle.php?id=410&layout=html