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 International Journal of Education and Development using ICT > Vol. 1, No. 3 (2005) open journal systems 

Vol 1, Issue 3, Front Pages



Volume 1, Issue 3
October-November 2005

ICT for capacity building and knowledge communities

Chief Editors:
Stewart Marshall & Wal Taylor


IJEDICT Sponsoring Organizations:

The University of the West Indies Distance Education Centre, West Indies;
Cape Peninsula University of Technology, South Africa.

Published online by:

The University of the West Indies Distance Education Centre, West Indies

IJEDICT url: http://ijedict.dec.uwi.edu//index.php

ISSN: 1814-0556


Editorial Team

Chief Editors:

Stewart Marshall, The University of the West Indies, Barbados, West Indies;

Wal Taylor, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, South Africa.

Book/Media Reviews Editor:

Ed Brandon, The University of the West Indies, Barbados, West Indies.

Editorial Board:

Shahram Amiri, Stetson University, Florida, USA;
Olesya Arkhypska, International Renaissance Foundation, Ukraine;
Hanafi Atan, School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia;
Marcus Balintulo, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, South Africa;
Inas Barsoum, Ain Shams University, Egypt;
George Bopi, The Papua New Guinea University of Technology, Papua New Guinea;
Tony Carr, University of Cape Town, South Africa;
Lawrence Carrington, The University of the West Indies, Jamaica, West Indies;
Eduardo Chaves, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Brazil;
Laura Czerniewicz, University of Cape Town, South Africa;
Patrick Danaher, University of Southern Queensland, Australia;
John Daniel, Commonwealth of Learning, Canada;
Peter Day, University of Brighton, UK;
John Dekkers, Central Queensland University, Australia;
Susana Finquelievich, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina;
Shirley Gregor, Australian National University, Australia;
Michael Gurstein, New Jersey Institute of Technology, USA;
E. Nigel Harris, The University of the West Indies, Jamaica, West Indies;
Philip Hui, Hong Kong Institute of Education, Hong Kong;
David Jones, Central Queensland University, Australia;
Olabisi Kuboni, The University of the West Indies, Trinidad & Tobago;
Narayanan Kulathuramaiyer, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Malaysia;
Fred Lockwood, Manchester Metropolitan University, UK;
Cisco Magagula, University of Swaziland, Swaziland;
Ken Martin, University of Cincinnati, USA;
Carmel McNaught, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, New Territories, HK, SAR, China;
B. Mohanty, Indian Institute of Mass Communication, Orissa, India;
Hilary Perraton, Von Hugel Institute, St Edmund's College, University of Cambridge, UK;
Jenny Preece, University of Maryland, Baltimore, USA;
P. Renga Ramanujam, Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU), India;
Douglas Schuler, The Evergreen State College, USA;
Greg Shaw, Charles Darwin University, Australia;
Alan Smith, University of Southern Queensland, Australia;
Xinghuo Yu, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology University, Melbourne, Australia.

Review Board:

Mohamed Ally, Athabasca University, Canada;
Imoro Braimah, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana;
Ugur Demiray, Anadolu University, Turkey;
Heinz Dreher, Curtin University, Australia;
Diane Heestand, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, USA;
Danny Hunter, Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC), Fiji;
Stefane Kabene, University of Western Ontario, Canada;
Wanjira Kinuthia, Georgia State University, USA;
Manish Kumar, OneWorld South Asia, India;
Mary Simpson, Massey University, New Zealand;
Kirk St.Amant, Texas Tech University, USA;
Bernd Stahl, De Montfort University, Leicester, UK;
Fay Sudweeks, Murdoch University, Australia;
Monica Whitty, Queen's University Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK.

Peer Review Panel:

Kendra Albright, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA;
Dan Balzer, Illinois Math and Science Academy, USA;
Maria Beebe, Center to Bridge the Digital Divide, Washington State University, USA;
Manuel Blanco, Universidad Centroccidental "Lisandro Alvarado", Barquisimeto, Venezuela;
Russell Butson, Higher Education Development Centre, Otago University, New Zealand;
Ngoni Chipere, The University of the West Indies, Barbados;
John Clayton, Waikato Institute of Technology, New Zealand;
Caroline Coit, University of Münster, Germany;
Robert Corderoy, University of Wollongong, NSW, Australia;
George Dafoulas, Middlesex University, UK;
Robert Fitzgerald, University of Canberra, ACT, Australia;
Bob Fox, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, SAR, China;
Suely Fragoso, Universidade do Vale do Rio do Sinos, Unisinos, South Brazil;
Fernando Garrido, The Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain;
Andrea Glorioso, Media Innovation Unit, Firenze Tecnologia, Italy;
Ellis Godard, California State University Northridge, USA;
Abdullah Goesdoel, Jogjakarta State University, Indonesia;
Paula Hodgson, University of Auckland, New Zealand;
Princely Ifinedo, University of Jyväskylä, Finland;
Roy Johnston, Techne Associates, Dublin, Ireland;
Luis Lara, National University of Catamarca, Argentine;
Deborah-Ann Lee, University of the West Indies, Cayman Islands;
Beatrice Ligorio, University of Bari, Italy;
Nena Lim, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia;
Sam Lubbe, University of KwaZulu-Natal (Westville Campus), Durban, South Africa;
Kathy Lynch, Monash University, Australia;
Qingxiong Ma, Central Missouri State University, Missouri, USA;
Simone Celine Marshall, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia;
Machdel Catharina Matthee, University of Pretoria, South Africa;
John McAvoy, University College Cork, Ireland;
Elspeth McKay, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia;
Jim Millar, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia;
Keshav Mohan, IHRD College of Applied Sciences, Kerala, India;
Ton Mooij, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, The Netherlands;
Andrew Morrison, Intermedia University of Oslo, Norway;
Alf Neumann, University of Cologne, Germany;
Avi Noy, The University of Haifa, Israel;
Tokunbo Ojo, Algonquin College, Ottawa, Canada;
Sydney Osuji, Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria;
Mari Pete, Durban Institute of Technology, South Africa;
Krassie Petrova, Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand;
Bob Petrulis, Wilmington College, Delaware, USA;
José Simão Pinto, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Brazil;
Nava Pliskin, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel;
Larry Press, California State University Dominguez Hills, USA;
Charles Quansah, World Links for Development;
A. Abdali Rashed, Applied Sciences University, Amman, Jordan;
Neetha Ravjee, University of Western Cape, South Africa;
Marianna Sigala, University of the Aegean, Greece;
Upasana Gitanjali Singh, University of KwaZulu Natal, South Africa;
Joette Stefl-Mabry, University at Albany, State University of New York, USA;
Johannes Strobel, Concordia University, Montreal, Canada;
Bronwyn Stuckey, University of Wollongong, Australia;
Kridanto Surendro, Institute of Technology Bandung, Indonesia;
Alvin Tanicala, Dept of Social Welfare and Development, Cordillera Administrative Region, Philippines;
Antony Thanamani, Bharathiar University, Tamil Nadu, South India;
Dianne Thurab-Nkhosi, UWIDEC, The University of the West Indies, Trinidad and Tobago;
Abdallah Tubaishat, Zayed University, United Arab Emirates;
Nashir Uddin, Daily New Age, Dhaka, Bangladesh;
Brett Williams, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia;
Peter Wilson, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia;
Su Luan Wong, Faculty of Educational Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia;
Pierre Ysewijn, Tolochenaz, Switzerland;
Eric Zimmerman, Bar-Ilan University, Israel;


Tony Carr, University of Cape Town, South Africa;
Laura Czerniewicz, University of Cape Town, South Africa;
Stewart Marshall, The University of the West Indies, Barbados, West Indies;
Charmaine McKenzie, The University of the West Indies, Jamaica, West Indies;
Wal Taylor, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, South Africa;
Dianne Thurab-Nkhosi, The University of the West Indies, Trinidad & Tobago, West Indies.

Layout Editor and Proofreader:

Stewart Marshall, The University of the West Indies, Barbados, West Indies

Technical Support:

Reeve Ramharry, The University of the West Indies, Trinidad & Tobago, West Indies;
Howard Smith, The University of the West Indies, Jamaica, West Indies.

Open Access Policy

This journal provides open access to all of its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. Such access is associated with increased readership and increased citation of an author's work. For more information on this approach, see the Public Knowledge Project, which has designed this system to improve the scholarly and public quality of research.


This journal utilizes the LOCKSS system to create a distributed archiving system among participating libraries and permits those libraries to create permanent archives of the journal for purposes of preservation and restoration.

Publication Frequency

There will be five issues of IJEDICT per year, in a continuous publication cycle. Articles will be published immediately in the current issue of IJEDICT on completion of the review/editing process.

Publication Classification Details

Key title: International journal of education and development using information and communication technology

Abbreviated key title: Int. j. educ. dev. using inf. commun. technol.

ISSN: 1814-0556

About the journal

The International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology (IJEDICT) is an e-journal that provides free and open access to all of its content.

Regional economies and communities are facing increasing economic, social and cultural hardship in many parts of the world as economies adjust to the demands of the new orders of commerce and governance. A part of this is the paradox that regional economies and communities can be either enhanced or disadvantaged by information and communication technologies (ICT) products and services. The potential enhancement comes from the increased social, economic and cultural capital that comes from harnessing ICT products and services in a community sense. The disadvantage comes from the power that ICT products and services have in centralizing commerce, service provision and governance away from the regional community.

Unless we get a greater level of access AND adoption of information and communication technology (ICT) for education and development at community level, we will miss the opportunity to turn the "digital divide into a digital opportunity for all, particularly for those who risk being left behind and being further marginalised" ("Declaration of Principles", WSIS-03/Geneva/Doc/4-E, Principle 10). The International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology (IJEDICT) is an e-journal, with free and open access, that seeks to address this issue.

IJEDICT aims to strengthen links between research and practice in ICT in education and development in hitherto less developed parts of the world, e.g., developing countries (especially small states), and rural and remote regions of developed countries. The emphasis is on providing a space for researchers, practitioners and theoreticians to jointly explore ideas using an eclectic mix of research methods and disciplines. It brings together research, action research and case studies in order to assist in the transfer of best practice, the development of policy and the creation of theory. Thus, IJEDICT is of interest to a wide-ranging audience of researchers, policy-makers, practitioners, government officers and other professionals involved in education or development in communities throughout the world.


IJEDICT has a major emphasis on the use of ICT in education and development in hitherto less developed parts of the world. The journal includes descriptive case studies about ICT projects in developing countries and in rural and remote regions of developed countries, as well research articles evaluating such projects, developing policy or creating theory. Topics covered include, but are not limited to, the following areas:

Community informatics and development in remote, rural and regional areas;

Developing regional industries (e.g., agriculture, tourism) with ICT;

E-Commerce and Business in remote, rural and regional areas;

ICT for micro, small and medium enterprises;

ICT in local governance;


ICT and social marketing;

ICT enabled healthcare for remote, rural and regional consumers;

Social epidemiology and virtual communities;

Education: distance, e-learning, flexible learning and delivery, open learning, e-literacy.

Notification of new articles

Sign up to receive regular notification of new IJEDICT issues and articles at:


Call for Papers/Articles

IJEDICT comprises: a "research articles" section for academic, peer-reviewed articles; a "studies from the field" section for edited (but not peer reviewed) case studies; a "project sheets" section for brief descriptions of relevant projects; a "notes from the field" section for working papers, and other commentaries on relevant topics; and, a "book/media review" section for book, software and other media reviews.

The Editors welcome submissions at: http://ijedict.dec.uwi.edu/submissions.php

Section Policies

Refereed Articles

This section contains articles that have been reviewed by at least two academic peers in a process that ensures that authors and reviewers remain unknown to one another. To be included in this section, articles must be based on research and scholarship, and contribute "new" and significant knowledge to the field of ICT for education and/or development. Reviewers for research articles are selected from the Editorial Board, the Review Board and the Peer Review Panel.

Book/Media Reviews

This section contains (but not peer reviewed) reviews of books that are relevant to the use of ICT in education and/or development.

From the Field

This section includes edited (but not peer reviewed) case studies (2000-5000 words) of the use of ICT in education and/or development.

Invited Articles

As the name suggests, "Invited Articles" are ones specially requested by the Editors. Generally, they are not peer reviewed.

Project Sheets

This section includes brief descriptions (500-1000 words) of education and development projects that utilise ICT.

Notes from the Field

This section contains short comments or notes that are useful for practitioners working in the field of ICT in education and/or development.


This section contains the editorial written by the editors for the specific issue.

Submission of Articles

Authors can upload their papers, as well as data sets, research instruments, and source documents through the journal's Submissions section. They can submit their papers, figures, and appendices in a variety of file formats, including Microsoft Word, WordPerfect, or RTF (Rich Text Format).

Registration and login are required to submit items online and to check the status of current submissions.

Author Guidelines

General Information

  • Submissions are invited for all sections of this journal. Refereed articles should be between 3,500 and 6000 words in length. Project descriptions for the "Project Sheets" section should be between 500-1000 words in length. Submissions for other sections of the journal can be any length.
  • Submissions can be in Microsoft Word, Rich Text Format (RTF), equivalent Open Source document file format, or HTML format.
  • Please use Arial 12-point font for the Title, which should be in bold "title" (upper and lower) case.
  • Use Arial 10-point font for the remainder of your article.
  • First level headings should be in bold uppercase, and second level headings in bold "title" (upper and lower) case.
  • No footnotes please - instead use endnotes.
  • Photographs, maps, diagrams and other audio-visual aids are encouraged. Please include these in the text where and as they should appear. Please provide images in gif or jpeg formats.


Please provide an abstract of approximately 100 words. The abstract should be included with the rest of your article in the submission file, but it should also be copied into the appropriate text box during the on-line submission process.


Please supply a short (100 word) biography for each author. This should include the name, rank, institution, institutional address, and email address. Do not place the biography in your submission file but copy it into the appropriate text box during the on-line submission process.


Submitted manuscripts must be written in the Harvard editorial style:

  • References should relate only to material cited within the manuscript and be listed in alphabetical order, including the author's name, complete title of the cited work, title of the source, volume, issue, year of publication, and pages cited. See the following examples:

    Marshall, S. (1991), "A genre-based approach to the teaching of report-writing". English for Specific Purposes, vol. 10, no.1, pp. 3-13.

    Taylor, W. & Marshall, S. (2002), "Collaboration: the Key to Establishing Community Networks in Regional Australia", Informing Science, vol. 5, pp. 155-162.

    Marshall, S., Taylor, W., & Yu, X. (eds.) (2003), Closing the Digital Divide: Transforming Regional Economies and Communities with IT, Greenwood Publishing, Westport CT.

  • Citations in the text should include the author's name and year of publication where you use the source in the text, as in the following examples:

    In this way, information technology can be seen to effect and influence changes in organisational structure (Orlikowski & Robey 1991).

    Edwards (1995, p.250) views the globalising of distance education as "invested with the uniform cultural messages of modernity - of mastery, progress and moral superiority through the development of reason".

    Globalisation, especially in relation to open and distance education, will reduce the tolerance of difference and so "how can local issues and contexts be addressed?" (Evans 1995, p.314).

  • Further information about the Harvard editorial style can be found at:


Submission Preparation Checklist (all items required)

  • The submission has not been previously published nor is it before another journal for consideration; or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor.
  • The submission file is in Microsoft Word, Rich Text Format (RTF), equivalent Open Source document file format, or HTML format.
  • The text is single-spaced; uses Arial 10-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses in HTML documents); with figures and tables placed within the text.
  • A 100 word abstract has been prepared and included in the submission file.
  • A 100 word biography of the author has been prepared but NOT included in the submission file (the biography will be submitted separately with the other metadata).
  • The text meets this journal's formatting requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines found in About the Journal. If the journal section is peer reviewed, author identification has been removed, and "Author" and year have been used in the bibliography and footnotes, instead of authors' names, titles, etc. The author's name has been removed from the document's Properties, which in Microsoft Word is found in the File menu.

Copyright Notice

Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the authors, with first publication rights granted to the journal. By virtue of their appearance in this open access journal, articles are free to use, with proper attribution, in educational and other non-commercial settings.

Privacy Statement

The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.

Principal Contact and Mailing Address

Professor Stewart Marshall
Managing Editor, IJEDICT
The University of the West Indies Distance Education Centre
Cavehill Campus, Bridgetown, BARBADOS, West Indies
Phone: (+1 246) 417 4497; Fax: (+1 246) 421 6753
Email: stewartmar@gmail.com

Table of Contents



Stewart Marshall and Wal Taylor

Editorial: ICT for capacity building and knowledge communities


invited articles

Cisco M. Magagula

Capacity building using an online training course


refereed articles


Olabode Samuel (OS) Akinsola, Marlien Elizabeth Herselman and S. J. Jacobs

ICT provision to disadvantaged urban communities: A study in South Africa and Nigeria


Colin A. Arrowsmith, Counihan W. Andrew and McGreevy Dane

Development of a multi-scaled virtual field trip for the teaching and learning of geospatial science


S. J. Jacobs and Marlien Elizabeth Herselman

An ICT-hub model for rural communities


Tokunbo Ojo

Wiring sub-Saharan Africa for development


Kevin Carmody and Zane L. Berge

Existential elements of the online learning experience


from the field

Adam K. L. Wong and Helena P. Y. Ng

Peer assessment and Computer Literacy for Junior High School Students in Geography Lessons in Hong Kong


Jan I. Sander, Philip J. Bell and Stephen D. Rice

MIS Sustainability in Sub-Saharan Africa: Three Case Studies from The Gambia


Oduronke Temitope Eyitayo

Experimenting e-Learning with a Large Class



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International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology. ISSN: 1814-0556